Roman amphitheatre, Durres 2002
ICOMOS Collaborative Photo Bank (ICPB) is part of the Open Access movement which promotes free and unlimited access to scientific production while defending the rights of authors over their photographical works. The Open Access movement recognizes that authors have intellectual property of their publications and thus they should decide how their publications should be disseminated and used.
ICPB respects copyright and all works deposited remain the property of the author, except in the case of a non-exclusive cession of rights to ICOMOS.
Download and use of an image
Warning upon download
Uploading one or several photographs to the ICPB
Before depositing a document, authors must make sure they hold the copyright or are authorized to deposit the document in the ICOMOS Open Archive, and that there is no restriction on its electronic distribution.
In depositing the files and the associated metadata, the author:
- grants the ICOMOS Collaborative Photo Bank the right to store them and to make them permanently publicly available for free online.
- declares that the document deposited is his/her own intellectual property or the property of a person who officially granted him/her the authorization to dispose of it.
- understands that ICPB does not assume any responsibility if there is a breach of copyright in distributing the documents or metadata.
For work being deposited by its own author
ICOMOS Collaborative Photo Bank (ICPB). ICOMOS is not responsible for the accuracy of the information provided in deposited documents. Opinions expressed and data provided in deposited documents, and their associated metadata, do not commit ICOMOS in any way and are the sole responsibility of their authors. Deposited documents are not automatically endorsed by ICOMOS. The ICOMOS respects copyright and all documents deposited in the ICOMOS Open Archive remain property of their authors except in case of non-exclusive cession of rights to ICOMOS. In self-archiving documents and their associated metadata, authors declare that the material they deposit is their own intellectual property and grant ICOMOS the right to store it in the ICPB and to make them permanently publicly available for free on-line. ICOMOS does not assume any responsibility if there is a breach of copyright in distributing the documents or metadata.
For work being deposited by someone other than its author
In depositing documents, and their associated metadata, that are not their own work, the person depositing declares that he/she has been appointed by the author or the copyright holder to deposit the documents in the ICPB or that the material is in the public domain, and accepts full responsibility for any breach of copyright that distributing these files or metadata may entail.
Creative Commons is a non-profit organization whose main aim is to establish a balance between the rights of authors, cultural industries and the general public’s access to culture. Creative Commons “provide free licenses and other legal tools to mark creative work with the freedom the creator wants it to carry, so others can share, remix, use commercially, or any combination thereof.” It is the first attempt to provide a valid legal framework for Open Access.
In the upload stage of the deposit, the ICOMOS Collaborative Photo Bank offers authors who hold the rights to their works, the possibility of choosing one of the following six available Creative Commons licenses to publish their works:
• Attribution Share Alike
• Attribution No Derivatives
• Attribution Non-Commercial
• Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike
• Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives
For more information about these licenses consult http://creativecommons.org/about/licenses/
View from the top of the amphitheatre with urban landscape and sea in the back. In 2002, the site was neglected and in bad conditions. In 2013 it was nominated for Europe's "7 Most Endangered’ programme.
"The Amphitheatre of Durrës, dating back from the beginning of the 2nd century, was discovered only in the 1960s. It is located in the very centre of the city, known in antiquity by the name of Epidamnos or Dyrrachium. It is one of the most remarkable heritage sites not only in Albania but in the whole Balkan region.
The Amphitheatre of Durrës, with a capacity for 15.000 to 20.000 spectators, was in use for more than three centuries. There is no precise information regarding the cause of interruption of its activities. This could have been caused by a devastating earthquake (345-346 AD) or an edict of the Emperor Theodosius ordering the closing of all pagan centres (391 AD). Later, the amphitheatre was used for Christian religious events, as testified, for instance, by a graceful early Christian chapel.
The experts have identified a variety of threats to this monument, ranging from water percolation, erosion, inadequate city planning, neglect and inadequate conservation and maintenance to lack of both financial resources and public awareness. There are a few interesting joint research projects in action, particularly with Italian counterparts, however more appropriate measures of research and conservation need to be implemented.
Given its outstanding importance and its exceptional stature and beauty, the amphitheatre already attracts numerous tourists. The Association for Development of Cultural Tourism, which has made the nomination for ‘The 7 Most Endangered’ programme, is confident that the renovation and preservation of the site will have a big impact on the revitalization of the entire city, thus putting Durrës back on the map of historic sites in Europe."