En 2017, la 19e Assemblée générale triennale et le Comité consultatif annuel auront lieu du 19 au 25 novembre 2017 (dates provisoires) à Delhi, à l'invitation d'ICOMOS Inde.

À cette occasion un Symposium scientifique international sur le thème « Patrimoine et Démocratie » (titre provisoire) sera organisé.

Plus d'informations seront affichées en temps voulu. 

Présentation générale des acteurs européens du patrimoine culturel. Dernière mise à jour: 15/10/2013.

Pour plus d'information (référents, adresse physique, e-mail, numéros de téléphone, fax) merci de contacter le Secrétariat International de l'ICOMOS (information reservée aux membres ICOMOS). 





Acronyme Nom Statut Légal Activités Adresse
EC - DG EAC European Commission - Directorate General for Education and Culture Public  - European authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs
 - Promotion of cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue
 - Promotion of culture as a catalyst for creativity, within the framework of the Lisbon strategy
 - Promotion of culture as a vital part of the EU’s external relations
EC - DG DEVCO European Commission - Directorate General "EuropeAid" Development and Cooperation Public  - Development and Cooperation – EuropeAid is a new Directorate–General (DG) responsible for designing EU development policies and delivering aid through programmes and projects across the world
- Funding of several development projects (including in the cultural and heritage fields)
EC - EACEA European Commission - Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency Public  - European executive agency operational since 2006 and responsible for cultural and heritage affairs
 - Responsible for most management aspects of EU cultural programmes programmes
 - Information and support to applicants and beneficiaries
 - Dissemination and exploitation of projects' results
 - Contribution to European Knowledge and expertise
EP - CULT European Parliament - Commission Culture and Education Public Committee responsible for:
 - Improving the knowledge and dissemination of culture
 - The protection and promotion of cultural and linguistic diversity
 - The conservation and safeguarding of cultural heritage, cultural exchanges and artistic creation
  -T he Union's education policy, including the European higher education area, the promotion of the system of European schools and lifelong learning
 - The audiovisual policy and the cultural and educational aspects of the information society
  - The youth policy and the development of a sports and leisure policy;
 - The information and media policy;
  - The cooperation with third countries in the areas of culture and education and relations with the relevant international organisations and institutions
CoEU - CAC Council of the European Union - Cultural Affairs Committee Public  - Contributing to the development of the teaching and dissemination of languages in order to develop the European dimension in education and training
 - Improving the knowledge and dissemination of the culture and history of the European peoples and safeguarding cultural heritage of European significance
- Encouraging mobility of students and teachers by encouraging the mutual recognition of diplomas and periods of study
 - Promoting cooperation between educational and training establishments and, in particular with regard to training, with business
CoE - DG II Council of Europe - DG II Democracy Public  - Cultural policies and initiatives throughout Europe (CultureWatch Europe, Compendium, HOTopics etc.) http://hub.coe.int
CCPs European Cultural Contact Points (36 countries) Public  - Cultural contact points have been established in the Member States and in most of the other countries taking part in the programme
 - They are responsible for promoting the programme, facilitating the participation of as many cultural professionals as possible, ensuring an exchange of information with national cultural institutions, maintaining contact between the participants in the various Community programmes and a link with the other sources of information on the various Community programmes
JPI Joint Programming Initiative on Cultural Heritage and Global Change Public  - Increase the value of relevant national and EU R&D and infrastructure investments by concerted and joint planning, implementation and evaluation of national research programmes in the field of cultural heritage
 - Calls for proposals to facilitate the implementation of the JPI
CCPTE Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe Public  - Web-based information system on cultural policies in 50 European States
 - Comparative overviews on cultural policy governance and other issues
 - Cultural statistics (population, participation, markets, employment, public funding)
 - Monitoring standards, Developments and trends in cultural policy (standard setting instruments, national laws and policies, key recommendations made within the Council of Europe)
HEREIN European Heritage Network Public  - Intergovernmental network in the field of cultural heritage policies aiming at promoting best practice and fostering the adaptation of public authorities' policies, contributing to improving governance methods
 - Database of cultural heritage policies throughout Europe
 - Cultural heritage thesaurus
HT HOTopics Public Developed in cooperation between the CoE and ECURES
 - Offer an innovative and evidence-based overview of culture, heritage and media issues in Europe
 - Developing "hot" topics for debate
 - Writing cultural heritage research articles
CWE CultureWatchEurope Initiative Public  - Generating and reviewing policy standards in areas of concern to governments and society by providing data, information, knowledge, comparative and trend analyses, expertise, advise and case studies
 - providing online information through joint access to the CoE's electronic information tools and making rapid consultation or European States in order to compare achievements
 - Contrubuting to prospective analysis and forward thinking by addressing topical issues and emerging trends, developments and difficulties
 - Offering a platform for creative exchange and policy debate between stakeholders
CN Culturelink Network Public UNESCO-funded initiative hosted by the Institute for International Relations (IMO)
 - World-wide network and platform for research in the field of cultural development
 - Research and publications
 - Conferences and seminars
LC LabforCulture Public-private initiative  - Informations, research and analysis in the field of culture and cultural heritage;
 - Online tools to increase cooperation between relevant stakeholders
 - Promotion of cultural cooperation throughout Europe through studies, funding, debates
EuNIC European Information Centre for Culture Public  - Web-based portal http://eunic-europe.eu
CE Central Europe - Cooperating for Success Public  - EU funded programme
 - Coopertion among CEE countries 
ENCC European Network of Cultural Centres Public  - Enhancing and vitalising the debate on cultural identity, cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue and exchange between the European cultural centres
 - Promoting the ENCC and expanding its services and membership especially to Eastern European member states to strengthen advocacy and lobby work for the interests of the independent culture scene
 - Professionalizing the Europe-wide services for members and partners
EHHF European Heritage Heads Forum Public  - informal network
 - built heritage, landscapes, archaeology 
EHLF European Heritage Legal Forum Public  - successor to the European Working Group on EU-Directives and Cultural Heritage
 - advisory body
 - ensure that improved and timely information on the development and consequences of legal acts developed by the EU that may pose a problem to cultural heritage are conveyed to the national competent authorities
EAC Europae Archaeologiae Consilium Public  - Network of national heritage bodies
 - support the management of the archaeological heritage
 - serve the needs of national archaeological heritage management agencies
 - provide a forum for organisations
 - establish a closer and more structured cooperation and to exchange information
FMoCS Bosnia & Herzegovina - Federal Ministry of Culture and Sports Pubilc National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.fbihvlada.gov.ba
EHA 3.3 European Heritage Alliance 3.3 Private  - Informal European sectoral platform composed of 30 European and international networks and organisations in the field of cultural heritage
- Advocacy and lobby activities
IFLA Europe  International Federation of Landscape Architects - Europe Private  - Lobby and advocacy organisation
 - Establish, support, and promote the landscape architectural profession across Europe
 - Communication (publication of an online journal)
 - Shaping and disseminating European initiatives
 - Education and research
ACCR  Association des Centres Culturels de Rencontres Private  - Network of 47 members across 20 European countries
 - Technical and thematic meetings, designed to respond to the needs of members and to enable them to tackle together changes in the fields of culture and heritage
 - Projects implementation
 - Coordination and advocacy
 - Research and communication (thematic studies, statistics)
ANCBS Association of National Committees of the Blue Shield Private  - Cultural equivalent of the Red Cross: protection of monuments during conflicts
 - Promote awareness raising, capacity building, preparedness, response and recovery at national and international level
- Set up a website containing access points to relevant databases (training, resources, specialists, conferences) with interactive links to other databases
 - Serve as the communication centre, archive and resource base for the ICBS (International Commitee of the Blue Shields) and the Blue Shield national committees
ECCO European Confederation of Conservator-Restorers’ Organisations Private  - Cultural heritage safeguarded for society through high standards of professional conservation-restoration practice
 - Organize, develop and promote, on a practical, scientific and cultural level, the profession of Conservator-Restorer.
 - Set standards and regulate practice at European level and enhance communication between and mobility of professionals.
 - Strengthen the role and responsibilities of the Conservator-Restorers in relationship to others in safeguarding Cultural Heritage
ECOVAST European Council for the Village and Small Town Private  - Enhance the well-being of rural communities, and the safeguarding of the rural heritage, throughout Europe
 - Foster the economic, social and cultural vitality and the administrative identity of rural communities
 - Safeguard and promote the sensitive and imaginative renewal of, the built and natural environments of such communities
ECTN European Cultural Tourism Network Private  - Network for tourism and the cultural industries throughout Europe
 - Facilitate sharing of research
 - Facilitate the development of transnational projects
 - Develop and improve training opportunities
 - Develop common responses to European Commission consultations
ECTP-CEU European Council of Spatial Planners Private  - ECTP-CEU brings together 24 professional town planning associations and institutes from 22 European countries
 - Dissemination of the revised New Charter of Athens on planning European cities in the 21st century;
 - Design of a Vision enhancing the quality and efficiency of cities and urban life in Europe;
 - Production of a guide to spatial planning and territorial cohesion;
 - Publishing of the proceedings of major conferences on European spatial development and the preparation of forthcoming conferences;
 - Preparation of the European Urban and Regional Planning Awards.
ELO European Landowners’ Organisation Private  - Promote a sustainable and prosperous countryside and increase awareness relating to environmental and agricultural issues.
 - Organise interdisciplinary meetings gathering together key actors from the rural sector and policy makers at the local, regional, national and European level
Heritage Europe-EAHTR  European Association of Historic Towns and Regions Private  - Formed as “The European Association of Historic Towns and Regions”  by the Council of Europe in October 1999 as part of the initiative “Europe – A Common Heritage”
 - Promote the interests of Europe’s historic cities through international cooperation between heritage organisations and historic towns - sharing experience and good practice and promoting the sustainable management of historic areas.
 - Members in 30 European countries and through our membership arrangements represent over 1000 historic towns and cities.
INTO Europe International National Trusts Organisation Private   http://www.internationaltrusts.org
ISOCARP International Society of City and Regional Planners Private  - Organise activities and events both for its members as well as for other professionals in the field of regional and city planning
 - Training programmes
TICCIH Europe International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage Private  - International organisation for industrial archaeology and the industrial heritage
 - Study, protect, conserve and explain the remains of industrialisation
CAE Culture Action Europe Private  - Advocacy and lobby organisation promoting culture and arts. Over 100 members
 - Provision of customized information and analysis on the EU cultural policy
EN Europa Nostra Private  - Advocacy and lobby organisation regrouping over 400 members and association
 - Organisation of EU prize for cultural heritage / Europa Nostra Awards
E-FAITH European Federation of Associations of Industrial and Technical Heritage NGO  -  Promote the study of and research in, recording, conservation, development and management, and interpretation of Industrial and Technical Heritage
 - Facilitate co-operation in Europe between those engaged in these activities.
EHHA European Historic Houses Association NGO  - Promote European cooperation regarding the conservation of historic houses and gardens
 - Provide a platform for the exchange of information and support for national historic house associations
 - Promote interest in the historical, aesthetic, educational, environmental, economic and social aspects of historic houses and gardens
 - Promote the extension and improvement of current historic houses, parks, gardens and estates to enable society as a whole to enjoy their attractions, beauty and story
EMH European Maritime Heritage NGO  - Encourage mutual cooperation between the extensive community of organisations in Europe, including museums, involved in keeping maritime heritage alive
 - Act as a conduit for the flow of advice and assistance between such organisations to contribute to the mutual understanding of different maritime cultures and increase public awareness of those cultures, by organising a triennial congress
 - Identify and promote historic water-borne links between European regions, publicising the role of waterways as a cultural bridge between the nations
 - Study and resolve common problems identified in the course of preserving and operating traditional craft in Europe
 - Provide official organisations of the European Union with a representative and consultative service on all aspects of preserving and operating historic boats and vessels
ENCATC European Network of Cultural Administration Training Centres NGO  - European network gathering higher educational institutions and
 training organizations dealing with cultural management education
and training (over 100 members in 40 countries)
 - Association status to UNESCO, and of  “observer” to the Steering Committee for Culture of the Council of Europe
ENCoRE European Network for Conservation-Restoration Education NGO  - Network organisation of higher educational institutions in the field of conservation
 - Restoration.promote research and education in the field of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage.
EUROCLIO European Association of History Educators NGO  - Building professional capacity through developing and implementing innovative (on-line) teaching tools
 - Fostering professional knowledge exchange, intercultural dialogue and cross-community, national and trans-border networking
 - Supporting sustainable professional civil society stimulating, initiating and empowering independent history and citizenship educators' Associations across Europe and beyond
EWT European Walled Towns NGO  - Exchange knowledge and experience in many fields
 - Promote the interest of our members
 - Support walled towns and their history in present day functioning
 - Set up projects together to stimulate exchange
 - Convene regular symposia in member towns
FEDECRAIL European Federation of Museum and Tourist Railways NGO  - European parent organisation for all friends of railways who are engaged in the maintenance, preservation and operation of historical railways. 36 members in 25 countries.
 - Research, publications and communication
FHR Future for Religious Heritage – European Network for historic places of worship NGO  - FRH is the only European network of charities, governmental, religious and university departments, that work to protect religious heritage buildings across Europe
 - Promote Europe’s rich religious heritage, which is a shared resource for cultural, social and economic development
 - Raise awareness of the threats facing Europe’s religious heritage.
Provide a communication platform for those working to protect Europe’s religious heritage
 - Share expertise and experience on common challenges
 - Identify areas where a Europe-wide response is appropriate and influence policy-makers on behalf of our members
OWHC / OVPM Organisation of World Heritage Cities NGO  - Contribute to the implementation of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage and the International Charter for the Protection of Historic Cities
 - Encourage, on both regional and international levels, cooperation and the exchange of information and expertise among historic cities
 - Ensure better links between research undertaken by specialists or experts and the needs of local management;
 - Sensitize the populations to heritage values and their protection
UIA  UIA workgroup Heritage Region 1 (International Union of Architects) NGO  - The International Union of Architects (UIA), is a global federation of national associations of architects
 - Training, advocacy and exchange activities
ERICarts  European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research NGO  - Comparative cultural research (concept building, empirical research, case studies, communication)
 - Cultural policy monitoring in cooperation with expres from over 40 European countries
ECURES European Association of Cultural Researchers E.V NGO  - Promote scientific and cultural co-operation throughout Europe and with the Southern hemisphere
 - Work for increased transparency and competence in European cultural policymaking
 - Support cultural researchers through exchanges and training
 - Help improve methodologies and instruments used in cultural research
BO Budapest Observatory NGO  - Regional obersvatory on financing culture in East-Central Europe
 - Observe, present, interpret, compare and analyse facts and processes impacting on cultural heritage
 - Consultation for public policy-making
 - Events organisation and project management
ECF European Cultural Foundation NGO  - Grants, awards, events, targeted advocacy actions, reflection groups
 - Capacity building and training
 - Online information platform
BHN Baltic Heritage Network NGO  - Multilingual electronic gateway to gather information on the cultural heritage of the Baltic diaspora with the aim of ensuring access to relevant information
- Developing a network of cooperation in the field of the cultural heritage of Estonians and Balts abroad, which includes memory and scholarly institutions, diplomatic and other institutions, international Baltic communities, organizations and individuals – at home and abroad
AMATEO European Network for Cultural Participation in Cultural Activities NGO  - Information flow, especially about the socio-cultural activities of the member organisations
 - Political support for the importance of active participation in cultural activities
 - The exchange of information and practice among the member organisations
 - International co-operation projects such as festivals, exhibitions, exchange programmes, etc;
 - The development of cultural projects, exchange programmes and tours and supporting the search for relevant partners from participating countries
joint research into the field of active cultural participation;
 - Intercultural dialogue
BE Banlieues d'Europe NGO  - Debates
 - Seminars
 - Trainings
AVEC Alliance of European Cultural Cities NGO  - Network of historical cities and territories
 - Position local heritage as a motor for sustainable development and commit in a quality approach
 - Give international visibility for the network as a whole
 - Integrate innovation into existing structures
EAA European Association of Archaeologists NGO  - To promote the development of archaeological research and the  - exchange of archaeological information
 - To promote the management and interpretation of the European archaeological heritage
 - To promote proper ethical and scientific standards for archaeological work
 - To promote the interests of professional archaeologists in Europe
 - To promote co-operation with other organisations with similar aims
EFHA European Forum of Heritage Associations NGO  - To heighten public awareness about the cultural heritage of Europe through the creation of a network for the non-professional world, in particular in the field of archaeology
 - International exchange programmes for individual members
EAHI European Association for Heritage Interpretation NGO  - To foster and further good practice and research in heritage interpretation throughout Europe
 - To establish an annual conference.
 - To establish a virtual market place that serves to link
all those that are involved and interested in interpretation
in an international context.
 - To develop further a system of international quality standards
in heritage interpretation based on the Transinterpret approach.
ICA International Council of Archives NGO  - The International Council on Archives (ICA) is dedicated to the effective management of records and the preservation, care and use of the world's archival heritage through its representation of records and archive professionals across the globe. http://www.ica.org
INTBAU International Network for Traditional Building, Architecture and Urbanism NGO  - INTBAU is a world wide organisation dedicated to the support of traditional building, the maintenance of local character and the creation of better places to live. We are creating an active network of individuals and institutions who design, make, maintain, study or enjoy traditional building, architecture and places. http://www.intbau.org
WMF - Europe World Monuments Fund Europe NGO  - Advocacy
 - Education and traning
 - Capacity Bulding
 - Disaster recovery




Acronyme Nom Statut Légal Activités Adresse
MTKRS Albania - Ministry of Culture Tourism and Sport Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.mtkrs.gov.al
MoC Armenia - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.mincult.am
MoEAC Austria - Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.bmukk.gv.at
MoC Andorra - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.cultura.ad
MoCT Azerbaijan - Ministry of Culture and Tourism Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://mct.gov.az
MOC Belarus - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://kultura.gov.by
DGC Belgium - DG for Culture, Ministry of the French Community Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.culture.be
MoCYS Belgium - Flemish Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.cjsm.be
MoC Bulgaria - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.mc.government.bg
MoC Croatia - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.min-kulture.hr
MoEC Cyprus - Ministry of Education and Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.moec.gov.cy
MKCR Czech Republic - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.mkcr.cz
KUM Denmark - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.kum.dk
MoC Estonia - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.kul.ee
MoEC Finland - Ministry of Education and Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.minedu.fi/OPM/
MoCC France - Ministry of Culture and Communication Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.culturecommunication.gouv.fr
MoCMPS Georgia - Ministry of Culture, Monument Protection and Sport Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.culture.gov.ge
FCCMA Germany - Federal Commissioner for Culture and Media Affairs Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.kulturportal-deutschland.de
HMoC Greece - Hellenic Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.culture.gr/culture/gindex.jsp
OKM Hungary - Ministry of Education and Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.okm.gov.hu
SDACS Ireland - State Department for Arts Culture and Sports Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.ahg.gov.ie
MHC Italy - Ministry for the Heritage and Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.beniculturali.it
MKRS Kosovo - Ministry of Culture Youth and Sport Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.mkrs-ks.org
MoC Latvia - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.km.gov.lv
MoFAEC Liechtenstein - Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Education and Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs  
MoC Lithuania - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.lrkm.lt
MoC Luxembourg - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.mc.public.lu
MoC fYRoM - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.kultura.gov.mk
MCCA Malta Council for Culture and Arts Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.maltaculture.com
MoCT Moldova - Ministry of Culture and Tourism Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.turism.gov.md
MoI Monaco - Ministry of Interior Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://en.gouv.mc
MKU Montenegro - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.mku.gov.me
MoECS The Netherlands - Ministry of Education, Culture and Science Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.government.nl/ministries/ocw
MoCCA Norway - Ministry of Culture and Church Affairs Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/kud.html?id=545
MKIDN Poland - Ministry of Culture and National Heritage Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.mkidn.gov.pl
SSC Portugal - Secretary of State of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.portugal.gov.pt/en/the-ministries/secretary-of-state-of-culture.aspx
MoCRA Romania - Ministry of Culture  Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.cultura.ro
MKRF Russia - Ministry of Culture and Mass Communications Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://mkrf.ru
MoC Serbia - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.kultura.gov.rs
MoC Slovakia - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://old.culture.gov.sk
MoC Slovenia - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.mk.gov.si
MECD Spain - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.mecd.gob.es
MoC Sweden - Ministry of Culture Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.regeringen.se
BAK Switzerland - Federal Office of Cultural Affairs Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://www.bak.admin.ch
MoCT Ukraine - Ministry of Culture and Tourism Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs http://mincult.kmu.gov.ua
DCMS United Kingdom - Department for Culture, Media and Sport Public National authority responsible for cultural and heritage affairs https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-for-culture-media-sport

Here the future PDF files of all the 2015 nominations

world heritage foldersLe centre de documentation de l’ICOMOS est spécialisé dans la restauration et la conservation du patrimoine culturel immobilier (patrimoine bâti, monuments et sites historiques). Le fonds documentaire comporte aujourd’hui :

  • 16 500 titres à partir desquels 38 500 références bibliographiques ont été indexées, et concernant la plupart des pays du monde
  • Plus de 400 périodiques régulièrement reçus par échange
  • 30 000 diapositives, photos et plans
  • Les dossiers d'inscription originaux des biens de la liste du Patrimoine Mondial de l'UNESCO.

Débat de l'ICOMOS sur les principes admis et les normes pour la reconstruction des monuments et des sites

Animé par le Comité scientifique international de l'ICOMOS sur l'Interprétation et la Présentation des Sites Patrimoniaux (ICIP)


La reconstruction dans le domaine du patrimoine peut être définie comme l'acte ou le processus de représentation de la forme, des caractéristiques, des détails, ou parfois même des matériaux manquants d'un site, d'un monument, d'un paysage, d'un bâtiment, d'une structure ou d'un objet qui n'existe plus (ou une partie de celui-ci) à une période précise, et généralement dans sa localisation historique.

Il est important de noter que les reconstructions peuvent aujourd'hui être numériques aussi bien que physiques, ce qui n'avait pas été prévu au moment de la Charte de Venise en 1964. Bien que la reconstruction physique puisse être plus « invasive » et endommager d'avantage le tissu d'origine qui reste de sites archéologiques ou historiques, la reconstruction physique comme numérique soulève de sérieuses questions de validité historique car les deux peuvent produire des images persuasives pour un usage éducatif et à des fins d'interprétation.

La reconstruction est distincte de la restauration dans le sens où elle comprend la construction nouvelle de divers composants manquants du paysage culturel, tels que des bâtiments, des huttes, des villes ou des villages, des constructions en terre, des zones de vie, des chemins et des rues. Partout dans le monde, les reconstructions ont abordé un large éventail temporel comprenant des sites (dont des dizaines sinon des centaines d'autres qui pourraient être mentionnés) comme par exemple une maison néolithique à Çatalhöyük en Turquie ; la Grande Kiva préhistorique au Aztec Ruins National Monument dans le Nouveau-Mexique aux Etats-Unis ; le portail de l'âge de fer de Beer-Sheva en Israël ; le site Castell Henllys de l'âge de fer au Pays de Galles ; le parc archéologique romain de Xanten en Allemagne ; ainsi que de nombreux bâtiments de périodes historiques (la plupart en bois, mais aussi en clayonnage enduit de torchis) à travers l'Europe et l'Amérique du Nord.

La Charte de Venise (1964), considérée depuis longtemps comme la source faisant les plus autorité pour la théorie de la conservation internationale, a été interprétée comme interdisant strictement la reconstruction des sites archéologiques – et de même, en toute probabilité, la reconstruction des monuments architecturaux détruits.

L'article 15 de la Charte stipule clairement que :
Tout travail de reconstruction devra cependant être exclu à priori, seule l'anastylose peut être envisagée, c'est-à-dire la recomposition des parties existantes mais démembrées. Les éléments d'intégration seront toujours reconnaissables et représenteront le minimum nécessaire pour assurer les conditions de conservation du monument et rétablir la continuité de ses formes.

Même concernant la « restauration » définie par la Charte de Venise (art. 9) comme l'opération spécialisée dont le « but est de conserver et de révéler les valeurs esthétiques et historiques du monument et se fonde sur le respect de la substance ancienne et de documents authentiques », l'exactitude est primordiale. La Charte insiste que même la restauration (qui n'implique pas la reconstruction) « s'arrête là où commence l'hypothèse, sur le plan des reconstitutions conjecturales ». Mais où, précisément, peut-on situer la limite entre conjecture et certitude lorsqu'il s'agit de l'interprétation – inévitablement créative – du matériel historique manquant ou endommagé ?

Une exception notable à cette insistance sur la conservation uniquement du « tissu d'origine » qui demeure a été faite par la Charte de Cracovie de 2000 (qui a complété les conclusions de la précédente Déclaration de Dresde sur la Reconstruction de 1982).

L'article 4 de la Charte de Cracovie a déclaré que :
La reconstruction de parties entières "dans le style de l'immeuble" doit être évitée. La reconstruction de parties limitées ayant une signification architecturale peut être acceptée, à titre exceptionnel, à condition d'être basée sur une documentation précise et indiscutable.

Cependant, elle a également reconnu que :
La reconstruction d'un immeuble entier, détruit par un conflit armé ou un désastre naturel, n'est acceptable que s'il y a des motifs sociaux et culturels exceptionnels en rapport avec l'identité de la communauté tout entière.

Ceci avait été le cas lors de la reconstruction à grande échelle de la ville de Ieper/Ypres en Belgique, qui avait été nivelée pendant le bombardement intense de la guerre des tranchées de la Première Guerre mondiale ; du centre historique de la ville de Varsovie, détruit pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale ; et du symbolique pont de Mostar, volontairement dynamité pendant les Guerres balkaniques des années 1990. Dans les années qui ont suivi la Charte de Cracovie, des experts du patrimoine de l'UNESCO et de l'ICOMOS ont discuté des plans pour la reconstruction physique des bouddhas de Bamiyan, des tombes Kasubi en Ouganda et des structures en terre de Tombouctou au Mali - qui ont tous été détruits pour des raisons politiques et / ou d'inimitié religieuse.

Un appel à la discussion

Malgré la reformulation du concept d'authenticité par le Document de Nara de 1994 et les textes de Dresde et de Cracovie mentionnés ci-dessus, une hostilité, professionnelle et formelle, aux reconstructions de tous types, sans considération de leur possible signification éducative ou culturelle et dans l'hypothèse qu'elles ont souvent été effectuées principalement pour des fins commerciales, subsiste. La résolution suivante (17GA 2011/39), adoptée par la 17e Assemblée générale de l'ICOMOS à Paris en 2011 se lit comme suit :

La 17e Assemblée générale de l'ICOMOS,
Rappelant la Charte de Venise (1964), la Déclaration de Dresde sur la reconstruction (1982), le Document de Nara sur l'Authenticité (1994), la Charte de Cracovie (2000), et d'autres recommandations concernant la théorie et la pratique de reconstructions;
Considérant la croissance significative à l'échelle mondiale des reconstructions de monuments et d'ensembles y compris des sites du patrimoine mondial;
Considérant le mépris croissant des principes théoriques en vigueur relatifs à la justification de la reconstruction et une nouvelle tendance vers la commercialisation importante des activités de reconstruction;
Encourage l'ICOMOS, considérant ce phénomène comme une urgence à traiter, à lancer un débat sur cette nouvelle et croissante tendance à la reconstruction.

A la réunion du Conseil consultatif de 2012 à Beijing, le Comité scientifique international de l'ICOMOS sur l'Interprétation et la Présentation des Sites Patrimoniaux (ICIP) a été chargé de faire avancer le débat, avec l'aide de tous les autres CSI intéressés ou des membres individuels de l'ICOMOS. Lors de la réunion du Conseil consultatif en 2013 à San Jose, des suggestions sur le contenu de l'enquête ont été sollicitées de tous les Comités nationaux et les Comités scientifiques internationaux.

Après la réunion, il a été décidé que l'analyse des résultats de cette enquête serait menée par l'ICIP en étroite collaboration avec les Comités scientifiques internationaux de l'ICOMOS, CIPA (Documentation du patrimoine) et THEOPHILOS (Théorie et philosophie).

Il est essentiel, dans l'objectif de commencer un débat au sein de l'ICOMOS sur les principes admis et la fréquence des reconstructions, que tous les membres de la communauté ICOMOS expriment leurs opinions.

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